Exception.cs source code in C# .NET

Source code for the .NET framework in C#

                        

Code:

/ Dotnetfx_Vista_SP2 / Dotnetfx_Vista_SP2 / 8.0.50727.4016 / DEVDIV / depot / DevDiv / releases / whidbey / NetFxQFE / ndp / clr / src / BCL / System / Exception.cs / 1 / Exception.cs

                            // ==++== 
//
//   Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation.  All rights reserved.
//
// ==--== 
/*==============================================================================
** 
** Class: Exception 
**
** 
** Purpose: The base class for all exceptional conditions.
**
**
=============================================================================*/ 

namespace System { 
    using System; 
    using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
    using System.Runtime.CompilerServices; 
    using MethodInfo = System.Reflection.MethodInfo;
    using MethodBase = System.Reflection.MethodBase;
    using System.Runtime.Serialization;
    using System.Diagnostics; 
    using System.Security.Permissions;
    using System.Security; 
    using System.IO; 
    using System.Text;
    using System.Reflection; 
    using System.Collections;
    using System.Globalization;

 
    [ClassInterface(ClassInterfaceType.None)]
    [ComDefaultInterface(typeof(_Exception))] 
    [Serializable()] 
    [ComVisible(true)]
    public class Exception : ISerializable, _Exception 
    {
        public Exception() {
            _message = null;
            _stackTrace = null; 
            _dynamicMethods = null;
            HResult = __HResults.COR_E_EXCEPTION; 
            _xcode = _COMPlusExceptionCode; 
            _xptrs = (IntPtr) 0;
        } 

        public Exception(String message) {
            _message = message;
            _stackTrace = null; 
            _dynamicMethods = null;
            HResult = __HResults.COR_E_EXCEPTION; 
            _xcode = _COMPlusExceptionCode; 
            _xptrs = (IntPtr) 0;
        } 

        // Creates a new Exception.  All derived classes should
        // provide this constructor.
        // Note: the stack trace is not started until the exception 
        // is thrown
        // 
        public Exception (String message, Exception innerException) { 
            _message = message;
            _stackTrace = null; 
            _dynamicMethods = null;
            _innerException = innerException;
            HResult = __HResults.COR_E_EXCEPTION;
            _xcode = _COMPlusExceptionCode; 
            _xptrs = (IntPtr) 0;
        } 
 
        protected Exception(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context)
        { 
            if (info==null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("info");

            _className = info.GetString("ClassName"); 
            _message = info.GetString("Message");
            _data = (IDictionary)(info.GetValueNoThrow("Data",typeof(IDictionary))); 
            _innerException = (Exception)(info.GetValue("InnerException",typeof(Exception))); 
            _helpURL = info.GetString("HelpURL");
            _stackTraceString = info.GetString("StackTraceString"); 
            _remoteStackTraceString = info.GetString("RemoteStackTraceString");
            _remoteStackIndex = info.GetInt32("RemoteStackIndex");

            _exceptionMethodString = (String)(info.GetValue("ExceptionMethod",typeof(String))); 
            HResult = info.GetInt32("HResult");
            _source = info.GetString("Source"); 
 
            if (_className == null || HResult==0)
                throw new SerializationException(Environment.GetResourceString("Serialization_InsufficientState")); 

            // If we are constructing a new exception after a cross-appdomain call...
            if (context.State == StreamingContextStates.CrossAppDomain)
            { 
                // ...this new exception may get thrown.  It is logically a re-throw, but
                //  physically a brand-new exception.  Since the stack trace is cleared 
                //  on a new exception, the "_remoteStackTraceString" is provided to 
                //  effectively import a stack trace from a "remote" exception.  So,
                //  move the _stackTraceString into the _remoteStackTraceString.  Note 
                //  that if there is an existing _remoteStackTraceString, it will be
                //  preserved at the head of the new string, so everything works as
                //  expected.
                // Even if this exception is NOT thrown, things will still work as expected 
                //  because the StackTrace property returns the concatenation of the
                //  _remoteStackTraceString and the _stackTraceString. 
                _remoteStackTraceString = _remoteStackTraceString + _stackTraceString; 
                _stackTraceString = null;
            } 

        }

 
        public virtual String Message {
               get { 
                if (_message == null) { 
                    if (_className==null) {
                        _className = GetClassName(); 
                    }
                    return String.Format(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture, Environment.GetResourceString("Exception_WasThrown"), _className);
                } else {
                    return _message; 
                }
            } 
        } 

        public virtual IDictionary Data { 
            get {
                return GetDataInternal();
            }
        } 

        // This method is internal so that callers can't override which function they call. 
        internal IDictionary GetDataInternal() 
        {
            if (_data == null) 
                if (IsImmutableAgileException(this))
                    _data = new EmptyReadOnlyDictionaryInternal();
                else
                    _data = new ListDictionaryInternal(); 

            return _data; 
        } 

        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)] 
        private static extern bool IsImmutableAgileException(Exception e);


        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)] 
        private extern String GetClassName();
 
        // Retrieves the lowest exception (inner most) for the given Exception. 
        // This will traverse exceptions using the innerException property.
        // 
        public virtual Exception GetBaseException()
        {
            Exception inner = InnerException;
            Exception back = this; 

            while (inner != null) { 
                back = inner; 
                inner = inner.InnerException;
            } 

            return back;
        }
 
        // Returns the inner exception contained in this exception
        // 
        public Exception InnerException { 
            get { return _innerException; }
        } 


        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)]
        static extern unsafe private void* _InternalGetMethod(Object stackTrace); 
        static unsafe private RuntimeMethodHandle InternalGetMethod(Object stackTrace)
        { 
            return new RuntimeMethodHandle(_InternalGetMethod(stackTrace)); 
        }
 

        public MethodBase TargetSite {
            get {
                return GetTargetSiteInternal(); 
            }
        } 
 

        // this function is provided as a private helper to avoid the security demand 
        private MethodBase GetTargetSiteInternal() {
            if (_exceptionMethod!=null) {
                return _exceptionMethod;
            } 
            if (_stackTrace==null) {
                return null; 
            } 

            if (_exceptionMethodString!=null) { 
                _exceptionMethod = GetExceptionMethodFromString();
            } else {
                RuntimeMethodHandle method = InternalGetMethod(_stackTrace).GetTypicalMethodDefinition();
                _exceptionMethod = RuntimeType.GetMethodBase(method); 
            }
            return _exceptionMethod; 
        } 

        // Returns the stack trace as a string.  If no stack trace is 
        // available, null is returned.
        public virtual String StackTrace
        {
            get 
            {
                // if no stack trace, try to get one 
                if (_stackTraceString!=null) 
                {
                    return _remoteStackTraceString + _stackTraceString; 
                }
                if (_stackTrace==null)
                {
                    return _remoteStackTraceString; 
                }
 
                // Obtain the stack trace string. Note that since Environment.GetStackTrace 
                // will add the path to the source file if the PDB is present and a demand
                // for PathDiscoveryPermission succeeds, we need to make sure we don't store 
                // the stack trace string in the _stackTraceString member variable.
                String tempStackTraceString = Environment.GetStackTrace(this, true);
                return _remoteStackTraceString + tempStackTraceString;
            } 
        }
 
        internal void SetErrorCode(int hr) 
        {
            HResult = hr; 
        }

        // Sets the help link for this exception.
        // This should be in a URL/URN form, such as: 
        // "file:///C:/Applications/Bazzal/help.html#ErrorNum42"
        // Changed to be a read-write String and not return an exception 
        public virtual String HelpLink 
        {
            get 
            {
                return _helpURL;
            }
            set 
            {
                _helpURL = value; 
            } 
        }
 
        public virtual String Source {
            get {
                if (_source == null)
                { 
                    StackTrace st = new StackTrace(this,true);
                    if (st.FrameCount>0) 
                    { 
                        StackFrame sf = st.GetFrame(0);
                        MethodBase method = sf.GetMethod(); 
                        _source = method.Module.Assembly.nGetSimpleName();
                    }
                }
 
                return _source;
            } 
            set { _source = value; } 
        }
 
        public override String ToString() {
            String message = Message;
            String s;
            if (_className==null) { 
                _className = GetClassName();
            } 
 
            if (message == null || message.Length <= 0) {
                s = _className; 
            }
            else {
                s = _className + ": " + message;
            } 

            if (_innerException!=null) { 
                s = s + " ---> " + _innerException.ToString() + Environment.NewLine + "   " + Environment.GetResourceString("Exception_EndOfInnerExceptionStack"); 
            }
 

            if (StackTrace != null)
                s += Environment.NewLine + StackTrace;
 
            return s;
        } 
 
        private String GetExceptionMethodString() {
            MethodBase methBase = GetTargetSiteInternal(); 
            if (methBase==null) {
                return null;
            }
            if (methBase is System.Reflection.Emit.DynamicMethod.RTDynamicMethod) 
            {
                // DynamicMethods cannot be serialized 
                return null; 
            }
 
            // Note that the newline separator is only a separator, chosen such that
            //  it won't (generally) occur in a method name.  This string is used
            //  only for serialization of the Exception Method.
            char separator = '\n'; 
            StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder();
            if (methBase is ConstructorInfo) { 
                RuntimeConstructorInfo rci = (RuntimeConstructorInfo)methBase; 
                Type t = rci.ReflectedType;
                result.Append((int)MemberTypes.Constructor); 
                result.Append(separator);
                result.Append(rci.Name);
                if (t!=null)
                { 
                    result.Append(separator);
                    result.Append(t.Assembly.FullName); 
                    result.Append(separator); 
                    result.Append(t.FullName);
                } 
                result.Append(separator);
                result.Append(rci.ToString());
            } else {
                BCLDebug.Assert(methBase is MethodInfo, "[Exception.GetExceptionMethodString]methBase is MethodInfo"); 
                RuntimeMethodInfo rmi = (RuntimeMethodInfo)methBase;
                Type t = rmi.DeclaringType; 
                result.Append((int)MemberTypes.Method); 
                result.Append(separator);
                result.Append(rmi.Name); 
                result.Append(separator);
                result.Append(rmi.Module.Assembly.FullName);
                result.Append(separator);
                if (t != null) 
                {
                    result.Append(t.FullName); 
                    result.Append(separator); 
                }
                result.Append(rmi.ToString()); 
            }

            return result.ToString();
        } 

        private MethodBase GetExceptionMethodFromString() { 
            BCLDebug.Assert(_exceptionMethodString != null, "Method string cannot be NULL!"); 
            String[] args = _exceptionMethodString.Split(new char[]{'\0', '\n'});
            if (args.Length!=5) { 
                throw new SerializationException();
            }
            SerializationInfo si = new SerializationInfo(typeof(MemberInfoSerializationHolder), new FormatterConverter());
            si.AddValue("MemberType", (int)Int32.Parse(args[0], CultureInfo.InvariantCulture), typeof(Int32)); 
            si.AddValue("Name", args[1], typeof(String));
            si.AddValue("AssemblyName", args[2], typeof(String)); 
            si.AddValue("ClassName", args[3]); 
            si.AddValue("Signature", args[4]);
            MethodBase result; 
            StreamingContext sc = new StreamingContext(StreamingContextStates.All);
            try {
                result = (MethodBase)new MemberInfoSerializationHolder(si, sc).GetRealObject(sc);
            } catch (SerializationException) { 
                result = null;
            } 
            return result; 
        }
 
        [SecurityPermissionAttribute(SecurityAction.LinkDemand, Flags=SecurityPermissionFlag.SerializationFormatter)]
        public virtual void GetObjectData(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context)
        {
            String tempStackTraceString = _stackTraceString; 

            if (info==null) 
            { 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("info");
            } 
            if (_className==null)
            {
                _className=GetClassName();
            } 

            if (_stackTrace!=null) 
            { 
                if (tempStackTraceString==null)
                { 
                    tempStackTraceString = Environment.GetStackTrace(this, true);
                }
                if (_exceptionMethod==null)
                { 
                    RuntimeMethodHandle method = InternalGetMethod(_stackTrace).GetTypicalMethodDefinition();
                    _exceptionMethod = RuntimeType.GetMethodBase(method); 
                } 
            }
 
            if (_source == null)
            {
                _source = Source; // Set the Source information correctly before serialization
            } 

            info.AddValue("ClassName", _className, typeof(String)); 
            info.AddValue("Message", _message, typeof(String)); 
            info.AddValue("Data", _data, typeof(IDictionary));
            info.AddValue("InnerException", _innerException, typeof(Exception)); 
            info.AddValue("HelpURL", _helpURL, typeof(String));
            info.AddValue("StackTraceString", tempStackTraceString, typeof(String));
            info.AddValue("RemoteStackTraceString", _remoteStackTraceString, typeof(String));
            info.AddValue("RemoteStackIndex", _remoteStackIndex, typeof(Int32)); 
            info.AddValue("ExceptionMethod", GetExceptionMethodString(), typeof(String));
            info.AddValue("HResult", HResult); 
            info.AddValue("Source", _source, typeof(String)); 
        }
 
        // This is used by remoting to preserve the server side stack trace
        // by appending it to the message ... before the exception is rethrown
        // at the client call site.
        internal Exception PrepForRemoting() 
        {
            String tmp = null; 
 
            if (_remoteStackIndex == 0)
            { 
                tmp = Environment.NewLine+ "Server stack trace: " + Environment.NewLine
                    + StackTrace
                    + Environment.NewLine + Environment.NewLine
                    + "Exception rethrown at ["+_remoteStackIndex+"]: " + Environment.NewLine; 
            }
            else 
            { 
                tmp = StackTrace
                    + Environment.NewLine + Environment.NewLine 
                    + "Exception rethrown at ["+_remoteStackIndex+"]: " + Environment.NewLine;
            }

            _remoteStackTraceString = tmp; 
            _remoteStackIndex++;
            return this; 
        } 

        // This is used by the runtime when re-throwing a managed exception.  It will 
        //  copy the stack trace to _remoteStackTraceString.
        internal void InternalPreserveStackTrace()
        {
            string tmpStackTraceString = StackTrace; 
            if (tmpStackTraceString != null && tmpStackTraceString.Length > 0)
                _remoteStackTraceString = tmpStackTraceString + Environment.NewLine; 
            _stackTrace = null; 
            _stackTraceString = null;
        } 

        private String _className;  //Needed for serialization.
        private MethodBase _exceptionMethod;  //Needed for serialization.
        private String _exceptionMethodString; //Needed for serialization. 
        internal String _message;
        private IDictionary _data; 
        private Exception _innerException; 
        private String _helpURL;
        private Object _stackTrace; 

        private String _stackTraceString; //Needed for serialization.
        private String _remoteStackTraceString;
        private int _remoteStackIndex; 
#pragma warning disable 414  // Field is not used from managed.		
        // _dynamicMethods is an array of System.Resolver objects, used to keep 
        // DynamicMethodDescs alive for the lifetime of the exception. We do this because 
        // the _stackTrace field holds MethodDescs, and a DynamicMethodDesc can be destroyed
        // unless a System.Resolver object roots it. 
        private Object _dynamicMethods;
#pragma warning restore 414

        // @MANAGED: HResult is used from within the EE!  Rename with care - check VM directory 
        internal int _HResult;     // HResult
 
        protected int HResult 
        {
            get 
            {
                return _HResult;
            }
            set 
            {
                _HResult = value; 
            } 
        }
 
        private String _source;         // Mainly used by VB.
        // WARNING: Don't delete/rename _xptrs and _xcode - used by functions
        // on Marshal class.  Native functions are in COMUtilNative.cpp & AppDomain
        private IntPtr _xptrs;             // Internal EE stuff 
#pragma warning disable 414  // Field is not used from managed.
        private int _xcode;             // Internal EE stuff 
#pragma warning restore 414 
    // See clr\src\vm\excep.h's EXCEPTION_COMPLUS definition:
#if FEATURE_PAL 
        private const int _COMPlusExceptionCode = unchecked((int)0xe0524f54);   // Win32 exception code for COM+ exceptions
#else
        private const int _COMPlusExceptionCode = unchecked((int)0xe0434f4d);   // Win32 exception code for COM+ exceptions
#endif 

        internal virtual String InternalToString() 
        { 
            try
            { 
                SecurityPermission sp= new SecurityPermission(SecurityPermissionFlag.ControlEvidence | SecurityPermissionFlag.ControlPolicy);
                sp.Assert();
            }
            catch 
            {
                //under normal conditions there should be no exceptions 
                //however if something wrong happens we still can call the usual ToString 
            }
            return ToString(); 
        }

        // this method is required so Object.GetType is not made virtual by the compiler
        public new Type GetType() 
        {
            return base.GetType(); 
        } 

        internal bool IsTransient 
        {
            get {
                return nIsTransient(_HResult);
            } 
        }
 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)] 
        private extern static bool nIsTransient(int hr);
 

        // This piece of infrastructure exists to help avoid deadlocks
        // between parts of mscorlib that might throw an exception while
        // holding a lock that are also used by mscorlib's ResourceManager 
        // instance.  As a special case of code that may throw while holding
        // a lock, we also need to fix our asynchronous exceptions to use 
        // Win32 resources as well (assuming we ever call a managed 
        // constructor on instances of them).  We should grow this set of
        // exception messages as we discover problems, then move the resources 
        // involved to native code.
        internal enum ExceptionMessageKind
        {
            ThreadAbort = 1, 
            ThreadInterrupted = 2,
            OutOfMemory = 3 
        } 

        // See comment on ExceptionMessageKind 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)]
        internal static extern String GetMessageFromNativeResources(ExceptionMessageKind kind);
    }
} 


// File provided for Reference Use Only by Microsoft Corporation (c) 2007.
// ==++== 
//
//   Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation.  All rights reserved.
//
// ==--== 
/*==============================================================================
** 
** Class: Exception 
**
** 
** Purpose: The base class for all exceptional conditions.
**
**
=============================================================================*/ 

namespace System { 
    using System; 
    using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
    using System.Runtime.CompilerServices; 
    using MethodInfo = System.Reflection.MethodInfo;
    using MethodBase = System.Reflection.MethodBase;
    using System.Runtime.Serialization;
    using System.Diagnostics; 
    using System.Security.Permissions;
    using System.Security; 
    using System.IO; 
    using System.Text;
    using System.Reflection; 
    using System.Collections;
    using System.Globalization;

 
    [ClassInterface(ClassInterfaceType.None)]
    [ComDefaultInterface(typeof(_Exception))] 
    [Serializable()] 
    [ComVisible(true)]
    public class Exception : ISerializable, _Exception 
    {
        public Exception() {
            _message = null;
            _stackTrace = null; 
            _dynamicMethods = null;
            HResult = __HResults.COR_E_EXCEPTION; 
            _xcode = _COMPlusExceptionCode; 
            _xptrs = (IntPtr) 0;
        } 

        public Exception(String message) {
            _message = message;
            _stackTrace = null; 
            _dynamicMethods = null;
            HResult = __HResults.COR_E_EXCEPTION; 
            _xcode = _COMPlusExceptionCode; 
            _xptrs = (IntPtr) 0;
        } 

        // Creates a new Exception.  All derived classes should
        // provide this constructor.
        // Note: the stack trace is not started until the exception 
        // is thrown
        // 
        public Exception (String message, Exception innerException) { 
            _message = message;
            _stackTrace = null; 
            _dynamicMethods = null;
            _innerException = innerException;
            HResult = __HResults.COR_E_EXCEPTION;
            _xcode = _COMPlusExceptionCode; 
            _xptrs = (IntPtr) 0;
        } 
 
        protected Exception(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context)
        { 
            if (info==null)
                throw new ArgumentNullException("info");

            _className = info.GetString("ClassName"); 
            _message = info.GetString("Message");
            _data = (IDictionary)(info.GetValueNoThrow("Data",typeof(IDictionary))); 
            _innerException = (Exception)(info.GetValue("InnerException",typeof(Exception))); 
            _helpURL = info.GetString("HelpURL");
            _stackTraceString = info.GetString("StackTraceString"); 
            _remoteStackTraceString = info.GetString("RemoteStackTraceString");
            _remoteStackIndex = info.GetInt32("RemoteStackIndex");

            _exceptionMethodString = (String)(info.GetValue("ExceptionMethod",typeof(String))); 
            HResult = info.GetInt32("HResult");
            _source = info.GetString("Source"); 
 
            if (_className == null || HResult==0)
                throw new SerializationException(Environment.GetResourceString("Serialization_InsufficientState")); 

            // If we are constructing a new exception after a cross-appdomain call...
            if (context.State == StreamingContextStates.CrossAppDomain)
            { 
                // ...this new exception may get thrown.  It is logically a re-throw, but
                //  physically a brand-new exception.  Since the stack trace is cleared 
                //  on a new exception, the "_remoteStackTraceString" is provided to 
                //  effectively import a stack trace from a "remote" exception.  So,
                //  move the _stackTraceString into the _remoteStackTraceString.  Note 
                //  that if there is an existing _remoteStackTraceString, it will be
                //  preserved at the head of the new string, so everything works as
                //  expected.
                // Even if this exception is NOT thrown, things will still work as expected 
                //  because the StackTrace property returns the concatenation of the
                //  _remoteStackTraceString and the _stackTraceString. 
                _remoteStackTraceString = _remoteStackTraceString + _stackTraceString; 
                _stackTraceString = null;
            } 

        }

 
        public virtual String Message {
               get { 
                if (_message == null) { 
                    if (_className==null) {
                        _className = GetClassName(); 
                    }
                    return String.Format(CultureInfo.CurrentCulture, Environment.GetResourceString("Exception_WasThrown"), _className);
                } else {
                    return _message; 
                }
            } 
        } 

        public virtual IDictionary Data { 
            get {
                return GetDataInternal();
            }
        } 

        // This method is internal so that callers can't override which function they call. 
        internal IDictionary GetDataInternal() 
        {
            if (_data == null) 
                if (IsImmutableAgileException(this))
                    _data = new EmptyReadOnlyDictionaryInternal();
                else
                    _data = new ListDictionaryInternal(); 

            return _data; 
        } 

        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)] 
        private static extern bool IsImmutableAgileException(Exception e);


        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)] 
        private extern String GetClassName();
 
        // Retrieves the lowest exception (inner most) for the given Exception. 
        // This will traverse exceptions using the innerException property.
        // 
        public virtual Exception GetBaseException()
        {
            Exception inner = InnerException;
            Exception back = this; 

            while (inner != null) { 
                back = inner; 
                inner = inner.InnerException;
            } 

            return back;
        }
 
        // Returns the inner exception contained in this exception
        // 
        public Exception InnerException { 
            get { return _innerException; }
        } 


        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)]
        static extern unsafe private void* _InternalGetMethod(Object stackTrace); 
        static unsafe private RuntimeMethodHandle InternalGetMethod(Object stackTrace)
        { 
            return new RuntimeMethodHandle(_InternalGetMethod(stackTrace)); 
        }
 

        public MethodBase TargetSite {
            get {
                return GetTargetSiteInternal(); 
            }
        } 
 

        // this function is provided as a private helper to avoid the security demand 
        private MethodBase GetTargetSiteInternal() {
            if (_exceptionMethod!=null) {
                return _exceptionMethod;
            } 
            if (_stackTrace==null) {
                return null; 
            } 

            if (_exceptionMethodString!=null) { 
                _exceptionMethod = GetExceptionMethodFromString();
            } else {
                RuntimeMethodHandle method = InternalGetMethod(_stackTrace).GetTypicalMethodDefinition();
                _exceptionMethod = RuntimeType.GetMethodBase(method); 
            }
            return _exceptionMethod; 
        } 

        // Returns the stack trace as a string.  If no stack trace is 
        // available, null is returned.
        public virtual String StackTrace
        {
            get 
            {
                // if no stack trace, try to get one 
                if (_stackTraceString!=null) 
                {
                    return _remoteStackTraceString + _stackTraceString; 
                }
                if (_stackTrace==null)
                {
                    return _remoteStackTraceString; 
                }
 
                // Obtain the stack trace string. Note that since Environment.GetStackTrace 
                // will add the path to the source file if the PDB is present and a demand
                // for PathDiscoveryPermission succeeds, we need to make sure we don't store 
                // the stack trace string in the _stackTraceString member variable.
                String tempStackTraceString = Environment.GetStackTrace(this, true);
                return _remoteStackTraceString + tempStackTraceString;
            } 
        }
 
        internal void SetErrorCode(int hr) 
        {
            HResult = hr; 
        }

        // Sets the help link for this exception.
        // This should be in a URL/URN form, such as: 
        // "file:///C:/Applications/Bazzal/help.html#ErrorNum42"
        // Changed to be a read-write String and not return an exception 
        public virtual String HelpLink 
        {
            get 
            {
                return _helpURL;
            }
            set 
            {
                _helpURL = value; 
            } 
        }
 
        public virtual String Source {
            get {
                if (_source == null)
                { 
                    StackTrace st = new StackTrace(this,true);
                    if (st.FrameCount>0) 
                    { 
                        StackFrame sf = st.GetFrame(0);
                        MethodBase method = sf.GetMethod(); 
                        _source = method.Module.Assembly.nGetSimpleName();
                    }
                }
 
                return _source;
            } 
            set { _source = value; } 
        }
 
        public override String ToString() {
            String message = Message;
            String s;
            if (_className==null) { 
                _className = GetClassName();
            } 
 
            if (message == null || message.Length <= 0) {
                s = _className; 
            }
            else {
                s = _className + ": " + message;
            } 

            if (_innerException!=null) { 
                s = s + " ---> " + _innerException.ToString() + Environment.NewLine + "   " + Environment.GetResourceString("Exception_EndOfInnerExceptionStack"); 
            }
 

            if (StackTrace != null)
                s += Environment.NewLine + StackTrace;
 
            return s;
        } 
 
        private String GetExceptionMethodString() {
            MethodBase methBase = GetTargetSiteInternal(); 
            if (methBase==null) {
                return null;
            }
            if (methBase is System.Reflection.Emit.DynamicMethod.RTDynamicMethod) 
            {
                // DynamicMethods cannot be serialized 
                return null; 
            }
 
            // Note that the newline separator is only a separator, chosen such that
            //  it won't (generally) occur in a method name.  This string is used
            //  only for serialization of the Exception Method.
            char separator = '\n'; 
            StringBuilder result = new StringBuilder();
            if (methBase is ConstructorInfo) { 
                RuntimeConstructorInfo rci = (RuntimeConstructorInfo)methBase; 
                Type t = rci.ReflectedType;
                result.Append((int)MemberTypes.Constructor); 
                result.Append(separator);
                result.Append(rci.Name);
                if (t!=null)
                { 
                    result.Append(separator);
                    result.Append(t.Assembly.FullName); 
                    result.Append(separator); 
                    result.Append(t.FullName);
                } 
                result.Append(separator);
                result.Append(rci.ToString());
            } else {
                BCLDebug.Assert(methBase is MethodInfo, "[Exception.GetExceptionMethodString]methBase is MethodInfo"); 
                RuntimeMethodInfo rmi = (RuntimeMethodInfo)methBase;
                Type t = rmi.DeclaringType; 
                result.Append((int)MemberTypes.Method); 
                result.Append(separator);
                result.Append(rmi.Name); 
                result.Append(separator);
                result.Append(rmi.Module.Assembly.FullName);
                result.Append(separator);
                if (t != null) 
                {
                    result.Append(t.FullName); 
                    result.Append(separator); 
                }
                result.Append(rmi.ToString()); 
            }

            return result.ToString();
        } 

        private MethodBase GetExceptionMethodFromString() { 
            BCLDebug.Assert(_exceptionMethodString != null, "Method string cannot be NULL!"); 
            String[] args = _exceptionMethodString.Split(new char[]{'\0', '\n'});
            if (args.Length!=5) { 
                throw new SerializationException();
            }
            SerializationInfo si = new SerializationInfo(typeof(MemberInfoSerializationHolder), new FormatterConverter());
            si.AddValue("MemberType", (int)Int32.Parse(args[0], CultureInfo.InvariantCulture), typeof(Int32)); 
            si.AddValue("Name", args[1], typeof(String));
            si.AddValue("AssemblyName", args[2], typeof(String)); 
            si.AddValue("ClassName", args[3]); 
            si.AddValue("Signature", args[4]);
            MethodBase result; 
            StreamingContext sc = new StreamingContext(StreamingContextStates.All);
            try {
                result = (MethodBase)new MemberInfoSerializationHolder(si, sc).GetRealObject(sc);
            } catch (SerializationException) { 
                result = null;
            } 
            return result; 
        }
 
        [SecurityPermissionAttribute(SecurityAction.LinkDemand, Flags=SecurityPermissionFlag.SerializationFormatter)]
        public virtual void GetObjectData(SerializationInfo info, StreamingContext context)
        {
            String tempStackTraceString = _stackTraceString; 

            if (info==null) 
            { 
                throw new ArgumentNullException("info");
            } 
            if (_className==null)
            {
                _className=GetClassName();
            } 

            if (_stackTrace!=null) 
            { 
                if (tempStackTraceString==null)
                { 
                    tempStackTraceString = Environment.GetStackTrace(this, true);
                }
                if (_exceptionMethod==null)
                { 
                    RuntimeMethodHandle method = InternalGetMethod(_stackTrace).GetTypicalMethodDefinition();
                    _exceptionMethod = RuntimeType.GetMethodBase(method); 
                } 
            }
 
            if (_source == null)
            {
                _source = Source; // Set the Source information correctly before serialization
            } 

            info.AddValue("ClassName", _className, typeof(String)); 
            info.AddValue("Message", _message, typeof(String)); 
            info.AddValue("Data", _data, typeof(IDictionary));
            info.AddValue("InnerException", _innerException, typeof(Exception)); 
            info.AddValue("HelpURL", _helpURL, typeof(String));
            info.AddValue("StackTraceString", tempStackTraceString, typeof(String));
            info.AddValue("RemoteStackTraceString", _remoteStackTraceString, typeof(String));
            info.AddValue("RemoteStackIndex", _remoteStackIndex, typeof(Int32)); 
            info.AddValue("ExceptionMethod", GetExceptionMethodString(), typeof(String));
            info.AddValue("HResult", HResult); 
            info.AddValue("Source", _source, typeof(String)); 
        }
 
        // This is used by remoting to preserve the server side stack trace
        // by appending it to the message ... before the exception is rethrown
        // at the client call site.
        internal Exception PrepForRemoting() 
        {
            String tmp = null; 
 
            if (_remoteStackIndex == 0)
            { 
                tmp = Environment.NewLine+ "Server stack trace: " + Environment.NewLine
                    + StackTrace
                    + Environment.NewLine + Environment.NewLine
                    + "Exception rethrown at ["+_remoteStackIndex+"]: " + Environment.NewLine; 
            }
            else 
            { 
                tmp = StackTrace
                    + Environment.NewLine + Environment.NewLine 
                    + "Exception rethrown at ["+_remoteStackIndex+"]: " + Environment.NewLine;
            }

            _remoteStackTraceString = tmp; 
            _remoteStackIndex++;
            return this; 
        } 

        // This is used by the runtime when re-throwing a managed exception.  It will 
        //  copy the stack trace to _remoteStackTraceString.
        internal void InternalPreserveStackTrace()
        {
            string tmpStackTraceString = StackTrace; 
            if (tmpStackTraceString != null && tmpStackTraceString.Length > 0)
                _remoteStackTraceString = tmpStackTraceString + Environment.NewLine; 
            _stackTrace = null; 
            _stackTraceString = null;
        } 

        private String _className;  //Needed for serialization.
        private MethodBase _exceptionMethod;  //Needed for serialization.
        private String _exceptionMethodString; //Needed for serialization. 
        internal String _message;
        private IDictionary _data; 
        private Exception _innerException; 
        private String _helpURL;
        private Object _stackTrace; 

        private String _stackTraceString; //Needed for serialization.
        private String _remoteStackTraceString;
        private int _remoteStackIndex; 
#pragma warning disable 414  // Field is not used from managed.		
        // _dynamicMethods is an array of System.Resolver objects, used to keep 
        // DynamicMethodDescs alive for the lifetime of the exception. We do this because 
        // the _stackTrace field holds MethodDescs, and a DynamicMethodDesc can be destroyed
        // unless a System.Resolver object roots it. 
        private Object _dynamicMethods;
#pragma warning restore 414

        // @MANAGED: HResult is used from within the EE!  Rename with care - check VM directory 
        internal int _HResult;     // HResult
 
        protected int HResult 
        {
            get 
            {
                return _HResult;
            }
            set 
            {
                _HResult = value; 
            } 
        }
 
        private String _source;         // Mainly used by VB.
        // WARNING: Don't delete/rename _xptrs and _xcode - used by functions
        // on Marshal class.  Native functions are in COMUtilNative.cpp & AppDomain
        private IntPtr _xptrs;             // Internal EE stuff 
#pragma warning disable 414  // Field is not used from managed.
        private int _xcode;             // Internal EE stuff 
#pragma warning restore 414 
    // See clr\src\vm\excep.h's EXCEPTION_COMPLUS definition:
#if FEATURE_PAL 
        private const int _COMPlusExceptionCode = unchecked((int)0xe0524f54);   // Win32 exception code for COM+ exceptions
#else
        private const int _COMPlusExceptionCode = unchecked((int)0xe0434f4d);   // Win32 exception code for COM+ exceptions
#endif 

        internal virtual String InternalToString() 
        { 
            try
            { 
                SecurityPermission sp= new SecurityPermission(SecurityPermissionFlag.ControlEvidence | SecurityPermissionFlag.ControlPolicy);
                sp.Assert();
            }
            catch 
            {
                //under normal conditions there should be no exceptions 
                //however if something wrong happens we still can call the usual ToString 
            }
            return ToString(); 
        }

        // this method is required so Object.GetType is not made virtual by the compiler
        public new Type GetType() 
        {
            return base.GetType(); 
        } 

        internal bool IsTransient 
        {
            get {
                return nIsTransient(_HResult);
            } 
        }
 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)] 
        private extern static bool nIsTransient(int hr);
 

        // This piece of infrastructure exists to help avoid deadlocks
        // between parts of mscorlib that might throw an exception while
        // holding a lock that are also used by mscorlib's ResourceManager 
        // instance.  As a special case of code that may throw while holding
        // a lock, we also need to fix our asynchronous exceptions to use 
        // Win32 resources as well (assuming we ever call a managed 
        // constructor on instances of them).  We should grow this set of
        // exception messages as we discover problems, then move the resources 
        // involved to native code.
        internal enum ExceptionMessageKind
        {
            ThreadAbort = 1, 
            ThreadInterrupted = 2,
            OutOfMemory = 3 
        } 

        // See comment on ExceptionMessageKind 
        [MethodImplAttribute(MethodImplOptions.InternalCall)]
        internal static extern String GetMessageFromNativeResources(ExceptionMessageKind kind);
    }
} 


// File provided for Reference Use Only by Microsoft Corporation (c) 2007.
                        

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